The Agreement of Saltanat-e-Usmania, also known as the Treaty of Lausanne, was a historic agreement signed between the Allied Powers and the Ottoman Empire in 1923. The Treaty effectively ended the Ottoman Empire and established the modern Turkish state.
The negotiations for the Treaty of Lausanne took place in Switzerland between 1922 and 1923. The Treaty was signed on July 24, 1923, and officially came into force on August 6, 1924. The Treaty marked a significant turning point in the history of the Ottoman Empire, which had been in decline for several decades.
Under the Treaty, the Ottoman Empire renounced all claims to its former territories and recognized the independence of countries such as Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, and Palestine. The Treaty also recognized the sovereignty of the modern Turkish state, which was established under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk.
In addition, the Treaty of Lausanne laid out the terms for the exchange of populations between Greece and Turkey. This led to the resettlement of millions of people, as Greeks who had lived in Turkey for centuries were forced to leave and Turks who had lived in Greece were also forced to leave.
The Agreement of Saltanat-e-Usmania was a significant milestone in the history of the Middle East and the world. It marked the end of the Ottoman Empire and the beginning of a new era for the region. The Treaty also paved the way for the emergence of modern Turkey as a secular democratic state.
In conclusion, the Agreement of Saltanat-e-Usmania, or the Treaty of Lausanne, was a historic agreement that marked the end of the Ottoman Empire and the beginning of a new era for the Middle East. The Treaty recognized the sovereignty of the modern Turkish state and laid out the terms for the exchange of populations between Greece and Turkey. This agreement is an important part of the history of the region and deserves to be remembered and studied for generations to come.